"Each time you say what a dream means , you get your face slapped"
There has been a growing suspicion and critique of Reason and Rationality in
the last century that was pre-figured with the Romantics, given its first
technique of investigation with ideas of the unconscious and then fearfully
brought into the mainstream culture with the advent of the atomic bomb. The cold
war kept us in America believing it was only the Communist who were irrational
and needed to be controlled and contained. By the end of the 1960's the rational
policies of containment, mutually assured destruction and the cold war were
exposed as paranoid delusions. The peace movement, grassroots coalition, novel
social contacts, psychotherapies and ecologically minded living offered contact
with a productive irrationality. Some felt we just matured in our ideas of what
is rational, but others began seeing rationality itself as the culprit.
The pragmatic critique of the Modern World has continued in the America and
produced fabulous responses in architecture (i.e. insides of building found on
the outside), politics (i.e. grassroots movements) , law (i.e. extreme reform),
therapy(i.e. contact with irrational), science (i.e. chaos theory) and
alternative culture( i.e. cyberspace). In Europe, the critique has been more
intellectual and has produced an even wide variety of social, philosophical,
literary and political responses. Generally these critiques, responses and new
productions are often called "Postmodern", "Postmodernity"
and "Postmoderism", but I want to note that there is no one movement
or set of ideas that contain the postmodern. Many would argue that it has
nothing to do with the move from rational to irrational.
In this month's Postmodern Dreaming column I would like to give a quick
general introduction to the postmodern and how it differs from the Modern and
suggest what it might have to do with dreams and dreaming. Later articles will
then wander organically, if not randomly, through the Postmodern ideas, reading
them together with dreams and dreaming ideas in hopes of producing new concepts,
ideas and practices that might enrich both. References and suggestions for other
texts and articles are highly recommended for a more complete introduction.
o Forward into the Past
It has been of interest to me for some time that there are a great many
parallels between the history of the interpretation of literature/poetry/texts
and the history of the interpretation of dreams. Like dreams, early sacred texts
were seen as sacred and messages from the gods. While this view continues even
today, new streams formed and diverged. The author's intention, what the author
meant to say, was seen as important. Others began to view the text separately
from the author and saw the meaning resting in the reader's response. Others
found the meaning by looking closely at the structure and context of the text,
seeking both the archetypal and social forces at play. This sequence follows
quite closely the ways of interpreting dreams.
By the 1960's it seemed that all the ways of interpreting a text had been
played out and there was nothing much left to do but catagorize these elements.
Then a post-modern revolution occurred. Some anticipated it coming. In dreaming
Jung, and later James Hillman, began talking about something irrational in the
dream image that needed to be encountered to avoid getting stuck in dead
categories. They knew that only a break with old patterns offered new pathways.
And they knew that archetypes were not just stereotypes. Encounters with the
numinous core could strip away old neurosis and open the door to the unrealized.
Had the postmodern revolution occurred first in Switzerland, it may have been
In France psychoanalysis was slow to take hold, being seen as a German
Project in the irrational. The French considered themselves as coming from the
rational tradition of Rousseau. By 1940s and 1950 things began to shift. The
Literary Left tended towards Marxism and the structuralist projects of
Levi-Strauss in anthropology and Jacques Lacan in psychoanalysis had taken
shape. In 1968 the country (France) was temporarily shut down by a country wide
walk-off of workers and students, backed by the French-Marxist who were at the
time denied any political power. But within days the Marxist representatives had
traded most of their political positions for government positions and the
country was up and running, except for the intellectual Left who felt betrayed
and now drifted away from Marxism. It was clear that even the most radical of
political groups could be tamed and dominated by the seduction of power.
Perhaps, it was thought, that organization itself if the culprit. In literature,
philosophy, critical theory, linguistics, psychology, leftist politics and art a
radical departure from the values of the past was in the making. This departure
was so powerful that a lecture by Jacques Derrida in America in the 1960's lead
to a widespread movement of American Deconstruction in literature, philosophy
and law. But the intellectual aspects of the movement remained in America mostly
in academic, and it wasn't until the advent of the Net that the ideas became
more widely disseminated.
The implications for interpretation, of dreams and text, as well as politics,
religion, recreation, sex, identity, psychology, play and other social practices
are so strange and uncanny that Americans have barely begun to grasp their
theoretical implications and significance. This may, as some suggest, be because
we already act out so many of the postmodern paradigms anyway, even if without
the intellectual baggage. We tend to *make* and *do* things in America. Again,
the Internet may be *the* postmodern expression, with emphasis on dissemination,
multiple identities, unrecoverable authors, multiple levels of meaning, social
practices crossing boundaries and categories once thought to be in-violate, the
championing of the particular, organic-order, non-hierarchical, non-human,
fluid, linguistic, textual and graphical, and metamorphic.
How like the dream. And here I hope to read dreams through the lens created
by postmodern writers. The purpose is not to break down the illusions of the
past views in hopes of recovering some hidden truth. Rather the hope is more
that these lenses (themselves fictions) we will use for temporary viewing, will
move us towards fictions we find more significant, more meaningful, or even to
those categories beyond meaning and significance that cannot be named. To move
not towards the dream, as if it would finally open up and reveal its secrets,
but with the dream, as a co-player in the creation of the improvisational
universe that lives between reality and fiction.
I would recommend having one or more dreams at hand as you read through the
history I have presented below on dreams and the postmodern. How does each
approach change your relationship with the dream image? What does each approach
offer or promise? What does each approach tell you about *what* you are
interpreting when you do dreamwork? What does each approach say about who the
author of the dream might be, and what the author's intentions are? Who is the
reader? How much of these questions and answers are dependent on the language we
o The History of the Interpretive Response
There is a correspondence, or at least, strong parallels between the history
of literary interpretation and the interpretation of dreams.
The earliest writings include the recording of dreams and their
interpretations in Sumerian cuneiform tablets. In these writings, it is assumed
that the author of the dream is a god and the the dream is a message to the
dreamer. The dreamer, like many a scribe, are seem merely as conduits of the
divine or demonic.
And the study of the interpretation of sacred texts, hermeneutics (HERmenOOtiks)
which originally referred to theories of biblical interpretations, later came to
refer to the theory of interpretation in general. The center of hermeneutics is
the belief that the text contains a stable meaning that can be determined and
possibly recovered. This was first extended from religious texts to legal,
historical, bibliographic and literary texts, but by the 19th Century had been
extended to all works in the humanities and social sciences. From this emerged
the idea of what is now called "Authorial Intention". Here, the
meaning of the text has to do with the author's attempt to use commonly know
language to produce a meaning. The recovery of the meaning is found in forming a
hypothesis about the author's meaning and attempting to confirm or invalidate
this by continual reference to the text.
In Psychoanalysis, the true meaning of the dream text was arrived at by a
close reading as well. Results of Free association we added to the patients
clinical material and historical background to discover the true meaning of the
dream, the true unconscious intentions.
These ideas carried on into the middle of the 20th Century.
By the 1940's an 50's, this interpretive text approach was giving way to New
Criticism. There was a shift from history and content to form. At the heart of
this approach was the autonomous *image* in the text, independent of the author.
The image, such as a poem, could now be analyzed at several levels, the
particular image (or poetic line), the genre, or the place in literature in
general. The old focus on the intentions of the author were seen now as guilty
of committing the "intentional fallacy"(Wimsatt & Beardsley 1954)
which sees the appeal to an author's designs as irrelevant to the autonomous
structure of a text. Who can really know the author's intention? Perhaps even
the author him/herself may not really understand the motives and intentions that
went into text.
Conflicts and resolutions in the text were seen as the guiding path into the
texts, with the focus on coherence and internal tension. Universal collective
patterns were found, and as Kugler (1987) has noted, this literary style
reflects more Jung's approach to dreams. The focus on image patterns, the move
to deeper collective themes, the discovery of paradox and reconciliation, and
the ultimate belief in the coherence and unity of the psyche were as important
to Jung as the New Critics.
Now all these style have been called into question. Not only authorial
intention, but the texts unity, autonomy and ability to reveal some referential
truth have been seriously questioned. The first new trend to emerge out of all
this doubt was called Structuralism.
Structuralism is a complex intellectual movement that became important in
France about 1950, and included such works as that of anthropologist Claude
Levi-Strauss, Literary Critic Roland Barthes and psychoanalyist Jacques Lacan.
By the 1970's there influence was considerable in England and the United States.
The roots of Structuralism are diverse, but usually traced to the Swiss
linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and his theory of language as based
on a system of internal differences rather than in resemblances to objects in
the material world.
- Signifier - The acoustic sound or material written word
- Signified - The concept to which the signifier refers.
Language, and thus the text and dreams made up of language, are seen as
closed, culture bound systems. This new science of linguistics , Semiology,
would study all of the signs that make up a culture, their nature, their laws. A
key to understanding this systems approach is the idea of words or signs as
having both a signifier and a signified. The signifier is the word itself, like
"tree". The signifier is seen as arbitrary. I could have used arbre in
French, dendro in Greek , silvus in Latin. Or "tree" in English might
have not ended up as "tree" but rather "oglot" and we would
have all gotten by just fine. And know when someone says "tree" it is
"tree" because the way it sounds is *different* than "me",
"free", "treat" and so on. Thus the material acoustic sound
"tree" is unique because it is surrounded by a whole system of
differences. Try describing any object-word in your room, a desk, a chair, a
door, without referring to how it is different from another object and you will
quickly see how difference plays an essential key.
Now each word or sign also points to something beyond itself. In normal usage
we talk about what the word refers to, a particular tree in material reality.
But as a sign, it also points to a concept, (as in the concept of
"trees") and this is called by Saussure the "signifed". We
can think of the signified as the concept or idea that a community of speakers
associate with the sound or written word. And again, the relationship between
the signified and the signifier is arbitrary as well. Saying "Tree" in
one culture may refer to the concept of "Bringing me some fish!"
The point of all this was to construct a view of language not tied to
material objects. The rules are inherent in the structure of the parts. Just
like a chess or checkers game, the pieces could all look very different, as long
as the underlying structure of the game remained the same. The authors intention
(the inventor of chess), the historical shapes of the pieces and the materials
they are made up of take a back seat to the rules of the game.
o Structuralism at Work
By the early 1950's and 1960's people such as Roland Barths and Claude
Levi-Strauss had extended Saussure's semiological approach to anthropology,
literature and culture in general. In the new interpretive vision, the sign's
ability to reflect or mirror nature and the human psyche gave way to the study
of how the words and images work as a system of structural relations.
In 1949, Levi-Strauss reformulated Freud's unconscious into two parts, the
subconscious and the unconscious. The Subconscious is much like Jung's personal
unconscious, and Freud's unconscious, full of psychic substances, memories &
imagos, and associations collected during the course of life. The Unconscious
was (structurally) more like Carl Jung's Collective Unconscious, devoid of
images and full of structural laws. Levi-Strauss saw the personal subconscious
like the personal words & pieces of life gathered, while the structural
unconscious is what really creates the rules that the pieces play out in life.
By 1953, French psychotherapist Jacques Lacan adopts this idea of the
unconscious as full of rules, processes and structural strategies and proposes a
three part psychic system, the Real, the Symbolic and the Imaginary. "The
object as such, attempting to be know" is the Real. We only experience this
indirectly. The representations of the object constitute the Imaginary. The
Symbolic is more structural and organizes representations into meaningful
images. The self for Lacan is a linguistic construction. Language here is
extended to mean any psychic capacity for representation. In the act of
representation we can represent ourselves thus creating self awareness. However,
this ability to represent divides us into a self that experiences and a self
that represents what it experiences. The experiential self on one hand is only
known because we can represent it, ("I"), but at the same time
separate from those representations and excluded from the common world we all
share through language/representations. This exclusion leads to an unconscious
order of existence, which may be seen as all our unmediated experience.
The structuralist project focused on these representational realms and worked
toward developing an objective science of interpretation, capable of revealing
the symbolic structures underlying all narratives. But by the 1970's even the
main proponents of the movement were beginning to questions the usefulness and
desirability of extracting a collection of abstract rules in every narrative and
text. Essentially, the text, once categorized and filed in the place of all the
narratives, loses its uniqueness and its difference.
A new movement was arising that was to shun the search for structural
similarities between texts.
This post-structural movement found its root influences in such thinkers as
Hegel, Nietzsche and Jacques Derrida. The key idea was a suspicion of any
project of interpretation that tried to ground itself in an absolute, such as
truth, reality, self, center, unity, origin and even author.
Whenever we have a set of rules or system, there is always a grand ole idea
that stands outside of the structure and informs it, though the grand ole idea
is always itself outside of explanation. Derrida point out in a seminal lecture
(Derrida, 1966) an example of how these ultimate first principles work in
removing themselves temporally, either ahead or behind of the system they
explain. An example with dreams would be the theories that posit anterior
causes, such as biochemistry, drives, family, trauma, childhood and day residue.
All explanation in these systems refer to an event in the past that caused the
dream, but is itself never questioned. Or the dream is posited as moving forward
in time towards ultimates such as Self, Wholeness, Unity, Death and God. To
work, the principles have to be removed and the status has to be different.
These transcendental god-terms function as the lynch-pins for the entire Western
theory of interpretation.
Derrida points out these are not grand eternal structures we assign to them,
but linguistic by products of a naively representational view of language. These
terms are... fictions. Useful, but none the less made up. There is no language
that is literal, even science. It is all metaphorical. All language is ironic,
both revealing and at the same time concealing.
Even dream interpretation systems that simple describe the dream images (such
as versions of the Phenomenological approach), certain terms will be literalized
and given a privileged status, and all the rest of the terms in the system will
revolve around this term and refer to it. Notice in dream theory how these terms
are privileged: wish, oedipus complex, archetypes, drives, phallus, desire,
imagination, self, repression, compensation. One term is seen as the origin,
such as the Jungian Self, or in Freud, the drives.
Try raising the question of origins without thinking about the origin of
*that* origin. It is next to impossible. "Origin" is now the
transcendental term and all further thinking about it will refer to it, though
it remains outside interpretation itself. Origin now explains everything but
Now this dissatisfaction with central explanatory principles was not new to
the Post-structuralists. Nietzsche had been working on this "god is
dead" theme since the end of the last century. The post-structural addition
extends this idea to language and begins to show how hidden in everyday
language, this first principle still exists. As Gilles Deleuze said, all words
point to Pharaoh, meaning that there is inherent in our language the implication
of center to which it is all referring. And yet linguistically, we never reach
that center. Instead there a hole in the center of the universe. Those with
faith or a flair for gnostic or mystic contact can say the hole is not empty in
the way an atheistic approach might have it, but this must always be either
private experience and or belief. Shamanistic approaches try to bridge this gap
by providing mediating and initiatory experiences for the sake of the seeker,
but these generally lie outside of the realm of interpretative theory and are
based on relationships of trust between shaman and initiate, or teacher and
student, or guru and disciple.
The shift from structural to post-structural interpretation is that of seeing
the text as a closed unity with decipherable meaning to viewing the text as
irreducibly plural, swinging from literal to metaphorical significance(s) which
can never be fixed to a single center, unity or meaning. When we are aware that
the theories by which we see the world are just that, theories, then we can pick
and choose among them. When we forget that they are theories, then they become
more unconscious and begin to structure our views, fooling us and tell us that
they are really real. As James Hillman has pointed out, dreams are so wonderful
a teacher in this area, because during a dream we realize that we are in the
image, the image is not in us.
Does this all sound a bit like Nietzsche and the death of god? It should as
Derrida and the other post structural thinkers are all profound readers of
Nietzsche. Not only is the idea of a center looked at with suspicion, but all
structure is seen as founded on an untenable paradox found in all Western
Metaphysics. And yet there is no call to despair. Though the origin cannot be
recovered, the awareness of this leads to a particular kind of freedom, what
Derrida calls "freeplay"
Since these early days of Derrida, many thinkers made the poststructural
shift, including Julia Kristeva & Jacques Lacan in psychoanalysis, Michel
Foucault and Michel de Certeau in history, Jean Francois Lyotard and Gilles
Deleuze in cultural-political critique and oodles of others in literary and
aesthetic criticism. Though each has his/her own unique contribution, the was a
general abandonment of explanation of meaning via first causes, origins and
orders based on binary oppositions. The idea that there was even a single
"me" or "you" was abandoned as well. The idea of a single
text is replaced by the word "discourse" generally meaning that
anything longer than a sentence erupts into history, breaks into contexts,
decenters the subject and distributes a continual flow of meaning. (How like the
Even the concept of "man" or "Humanity" becomes a
linguistic construct. We have no nature, or more properly, to speak of our
Nature is to get caught up in the linguistic binary game of what is nurture,
what is nature, and thus it has no meaning outside of this game. All universals
that are posited as valid fall into this new paradox.
While this movement was highly involved in linguistic critiques of social and
political practices, showing how language figures in the construction of the
possibilities of meaning and reality, the larger cultural movement,
postmodernism has extended itself into and beyond these initial linguistic and
social critiques to include the signifying practices of the culture at large. In
literature, the writer may have the text become self conscious and have the text
converse with the story itself. In architecture, what is usually seen only
inside a building might be found on the outside. The general significance of the
postmodern spills out into the streets and is as relevant there as with the
avant-garde. (How like the Dream)
o Sign of the Times
Increasingly important in Postmodern thought is the Sign in Culture. The
social order shifts from
productive to reproductive, and simulations and models of reality begin to
replace what was once thought to be real. The differences between appearance and
reality fade. Representation is replaced by presentation. Singularity of truth
is replaced by plurality of viewpoint. Lyotard speaks about the grand narratives
being replaced by more local accounts of reality. Just as the emphasis in
structuralism moved the attention away from the concrete object to the objects
sign, the postmodern continues to move the attention away from the signified
(concept) to the signifier or the signifying act. Like an improvisational jazz
movement or a rock and roll concert, the meanings may swirl around the event,
but the focus is on the instrumentality or acoustic materiality of the moment.
o Dreams and the Postmodern: A brief account to date
There have been a few attempts by dream theorists to move dreamwork and
dreaming into the postmodern, but these are mostly scattered talks and texts. In
1989, Harry Hunt's book the Multiplicity of Dreams was published. In this close
examination of the cognitive science of dreaming, Hunt revealed how bias of
perspectives also bias the not only the interpretation of empirical results, but
choice of the objects of study and the funding as well. Hunt also recognized the
core of dreaming as "exterioriz(ing) the processes of cross-modal
synesthetic translation and mutual reorganization that may constitute the core
of all symbolic intelligence." (Hunt 1989 206).
Here the process of cross-modal synesthetic (hearing colors, tasting sounds)
translation and mutual reorganization refers to a post-representational
presentation in which meaning is generated in the freeplay of being, becoming
and re-becoming. Bert States, in his book _the Rhetoric of Dreams_ explores
Dreams and the Freudian Primary Process, (the dream-work of displacement,
symbolization, condensation and so on) in literary terms of Irony and other
metaphoric shifts brought about by language. Paul Kugler, a Jungian (post-jungian?)
and Gordon Globus have both given presentations at the Association for the Study
of Dreams on the postmodern and dreams. Kugler attempts to question the limits
of dream theory as we move from the modern to the postmodern. Kugler asks of any
Where is the dream being literal, and where is it being figurative? To what
does the dream refer, the inner world, the outer world, or is it
self-referential? Who is the author of the dream, biology, a wish, a desire, a
deity, or is there no author? How do we develop a dream theory that is itself
self conscious? That is, capable of carrying an awareness of its own figural
aspects and assumptions? ( its own unconsciousness?). Gordon Globus has been
attempting to construct a connectionists theory of mind/brain and apply this to
dreaming as a way to move into viewing dreaming without getting caught up in
representational thought. In his Neural Net theory, the brain flows, and in this
flow of interactive influences there are valleys and hills that we settle for a
few moments and experience one of many possible worlds. Dreaming is simply the
flow of these neural nets without the constraints of outer stimulation. James
Hillman has also attempted to view dreams without importing theories from the
past and his _Dreams and the Underworld_ creates a bridge between the structural
projects of Jung and the Postmodern psychoanalytic theories that remove the idea
of the Self as a central organizing principle to open the individual to a
spectrum of archetypal influences which may play out on a larger cultural
theater than the therapist's couch.
However, the most explosive and creative venue for postmodern dreaming has
been the Internet. Some ideas are more apparent than others. The ideas of the
pre-commercial Net have influenced contemporary Late 90's Cyberspace, which
include sharing of resources, the acceptance of multiple identities, the
encouragement toward the non-familiar, the cooperative spirit of helping one
another get these ideas up and out to the public, general trust of chaos and
anarchy and relationships bonded by mutual interest rather than coercions.
Though most of these concepts have collapsed under the proprietary
territorializations of the commercial networks, they are the backdrop that have
provided support to what I'm calling America's Postmodern Dreaming in
Cyberspace. Here the multiple forms of trans categorical presentation erupt in
ever new forms. Typically we catagorize them, dream art, dream work, dream
sharing, dream science, lucid dreaming, shamanic dreaming, spiritual dreaming,
journey dreaming, psychic dreaming, dream journals, dreams comments, dream
inspired poetry and so on. But these dream eruptions generally defy any
classification and break many boundaries. At one moment a dream is a journal
entry, the next a discussion between people from around the world in a simulated
virtual room. Later a picture emerges on a Web site and it is linked to the
sleep research laboratories in Cincinnati. An individual following this path may
be involved in the meaning of the dream, but they are also involved in the track
of the dream, the medium of the text in a chat room, in an email, and on the
Web, as a gif or jpeg. This, I feel, has been America's contribution to the
Postmodern, a computer mediated anarchical network of discourse vibrating with
the eruptions onto its virtual surface.
What seems to be missing is a reading together of the pragmatic American
know-how with the Continental discourses on theory. Instead of using new ideas
to explain the meaning of what we have done, the idea here is to use the ideas
to further what has been done, to break through old concepts and restrictions of
the real, to reach, as the surrealist call it, the Surreal.
In dreamwork online we have in many ways already achieved postmodern status.
The identity of the player is always in flux and there is an emphasis on play
itself as important. We often acknowledge the inability to establish the meaning
of a dream for another subject, and thereby all agree from the start that all
meanings are really our own. A dream might mean a life style change to one
participant, while another may build a new community, another take on social
injustice. We are deeply aware in the late 20th Century of all the ephemerality,
fragmentation, discontinuity and chaos. To move into the postmodern is not to
transcend this, nor to counteract it, nor even to find the eternal elements in
it. Rather, we learn to swim in it, to wallow, to witness as if that is all
there is, Samsara is Nirvana. Thus, this column plans no particular direction or
schedule. At this moment it appears there is a postmodern attitude, but this may
change. Deleuze suggests to ‘develop actions, though and desires by
proliferation, juxtaposition, and disjunction," and "to prefer what is
positive and multiple, difference over uniformity, flows over unities, mobile
arrangements over systems. Believe that what is productive is not sedentary but
nomadic." (Preface, Anti-Oedipus).
How like the dream.
-Richard Wilkerson, May 1997
If you are interested in learning more about Postmodern(ism)? I have set up
an index site to online texts. I recommend first reading the alt.postmodern faq
Beginning Book Suggestions: (by priority )
+Sarup, Madan (1989). _An Introductory Guide to Post-Structrualism and
Postmodernism_. Athens, GA:University of Georgia
[Best all around short introduction to the postmodern]
+Best, S. & Kellner, D. (1991). _Postmodern Theory: Critical
Interrogations_. New York: The Guilford Press.
[an overview of the postmodern from the Jump--Right-In school. Some
generalizations may be confusing and the use of language and style often needs
+Berman, Art (1988). _From the New Criticism to Deconstruction: the reception
of Structuralism and Post-Structuralism_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[a very good analysis of the American Reception to poststructuralism and its
influences. Tends towards literary and philosophical types, misses a lot of the
+Adams, Hazard & Searle, Leroy (1986) _Critical Theory Since 1965_.
Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press.
[for the history of interpretation this is a great sampling, with some
introduction to dozens of prominent and classical texts in critical literature]
+Harraway, Donna(1980) "A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology,
and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s" (Linda J. Nicholson, ed.
*Feminism/Postmodernism*. NY: Routledge, 1980, pp. 190-233)
[This seminal essay is a must for everyone in cyberspace. Suggestions for how
the mix of technology and humanity will break down both categories and
re-assemble a more even playing field for women and other repressed minorities].
+Anderson, Water Truett (1995). _The Truth about Truth: De-confusiong and Re-constructiong
the Postmodern World_. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher
[A collection of quick takes on the postmodern from a wide variety of authors]
+Leitch, Vincent B. (1983). _Deconstructive Criticism_ New York:Columbia
[an overview of deconstruction in literary theory - assumes reader has some
familiarity with a pre-deconstructive philosophy and theory]
++Adams, Hazard & Searle, Leroy (1986) _Critical Theory Since 1965_.
Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press.
++Anderson, Water Truett (1995). _The Truth about Truth: De-confusiong and
Re-constructiong the Postmodern World_. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher
++ Barthes, Roland (1977). The Death of the Author. In Image, Music, text.
Trans Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang.
++Berman, Art (1988). _From the New Criticism to Deconstruction: the
reception of Structuralism and Post-Structuralism_. Chicago: University of
++Best, S. & Kellner, D. (1991). _Postmodern Theory: Critical
Interrogations_. New York: The Guilford Press.
++Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. (1983). _Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and
Schizophrenia._ Minneapolis: Univ. of Minn Press. Originally Published as _L'Anti-Oedipe_,
1972 Les Editions De Minnuit
++Derrida, Jacques (1966). Structure, sign, and play in the discourse of the
human sciences. In _The Strucuralist Controversy_, Richard Macksey and Eugenio
Donato, eds. 1972, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Also available in (1991/1972). Structure sign and play in the discourse of the
human sciences. _Criticism: Major Statements_, 3rd editon Charles Kaplan and
William Anderson (eds) New York: St Martin's Press pp. 513-534 SF PN 81 .c85
reprinted from Richard Macksey & Eugenio Donato (eds)(1972). The
Structuralist Controversy. John Hopkins University Press.
++ Foucault, Michel (1977). What is an Author? In language, counter-memory,
Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Trans. Donald F Bouchard and Sherry
Simon. Ithica, NY: cornell Univ. Press.
++Harraway, Donna(1980) "A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology,
and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s" (Linda J. Nicholson, ed.
*Feminism/Postmodernism*. NY: Routledge, 1980, pp. 190-233)
++Hillman, James (1979). Dreams and the Underworld. New York: Harper and Row,
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